▫D.Sc. (Econ.), 1995 Helsinki School of Economics (HSE), research done as visiting doctoral student at the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield University (U.K.) in 1993-94. Thesis Airline Performance and Costs: an Analysis of Performance Measurement and Cost Reduction in Major Airlines. ▫Lic.Sc. (Econ.), 1993 HSE, majoring in International Business with thesis Strategies of Airlines in the Deregulated European Competitive Environment. ▫M.Sc. (Econ.), 1987 HSE, majoring in International Business.